While much of the world’s attention is on the COVID-19 pandemic, which has now reached many countries in Africa, measles continues to silently kill large numbers of mostly children in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Central African Republic (CAR) and Chad.
DRC – which has also been battling an Ebola epidemic – declared a measles outbreak in June 2019.
Chad’s measles outbreak has been raging for two years, since May 2018, while CAR declared its measles outbreak in January this year.
Together, these outbreaks have infected hundreds of thousands of children and killed thousands more.
Some kids die at home, never having reached proper medical care or having been seen only by a traditional healer.
MSF teams have been responding to the measles epidemic in all three countries – providing outbreak response vaccination, treating children for the disease, and for other illnesses such as malnutrition.
Our staff are working amid logistics challenges and insecure contexts, all while the COVID-19 pandemic looms as a further potential threat and distraction for governments, donors and other health organisations.
Democratic Republic of Congo
Overshadowed by the Ebola outbreak in the east of the country, the measles response in DRC has been neglected from the start.
It took months before the epidemic was finally declared in June 2019, while the vaccination campaigns organised by authorities were marked by delays, coordination issues and a lack of supporting partners, many of whom were focused on the response to Ebola.
A supplementary vaccination campaign, intended to “mop up” those children who had been missed, was repeatedly postponed, before finally taking place in late 2019.
Dobo Mambanza, 3, suffers from an advanced stage of measles. After traditional healing recipes failed to cure the initial symptoms, her mother travelled 65km by motorbike to bring her to the General Reference Hospital in Boso Manzi, northern DRC. Dobo is now being cared for by MSF emergency teams deployed in the region to fight the ongoing outbreak. © Caroline Thirion/MSF
Every delay and every obstacle increases the risk of the epidemic continuing to spread, killing more children.
All of these factors contributed to the disease’s heavy toll in DRC, making it the country’s deadliest measles epidemic recorded to date and the largest in the world today.
“Today, the overall number of cases may have reduced, but the epidemic is far from over,” says Emmanuel Lampaert, MSF’s operations coordinator in DRC.
“Some areas are even reporting increases and there are about 100 health zones where action is urgently needed.
An MSF staff member with a motorbike loaded with measles vaccines. This photo was taken at the start of the measles vaccination campaign organised by MSF in the 17 health areas of the Boso Manzi health zone, Mongala province, where a measles epidemic has been raging for several months. © Caroline Thirion/MSF
“Since January, more than 50,000 cases and 600 deaths have already been officially notified. But many zones with increasing numbers of cases and deaths are not included in the latest national measles response plan.”
From Haut-Uélé to Kongo Central, North Ubangi to South Kivu, MSF teams have been deployed in a dozen provinces across DRC in 2020.
Our teams have already vaccinated more than 260,000 children against measles so far this year, while caring for more than 17,500 patients with the disease.
Last year, MSF vaccinated 816,000 children against measles and treated more than 50,000 patients.
Medicines to treat silent killers in short supply
As in many remote places in DRC, local people know all too well the toll taken by “silent killers” such as measles, malaria, diarrhoea and respiratory infections.
“The needs here are huge but the supply of medicines to health centres is problematic,” says Gédéon Mushadi, the health zone’s chief doctor. “The few medicines available in the health facilities do not cover the needs.”
Alphonsine Ekima (pictured), 43, and her family have felt the direct impact of this.
Alphonsine Ekima, 43, lost her daughter Marie to measles earlier this year. The three-year-old girl was buried the same day as her cousin, who also died of measles. © Caroline Thirion/MSF
Earlier this year, her three-year-old daughter Marie died of measles. She was buried on the same day as her cousin, who died from the same disease.
“Marie was the fourth child taken away from me,” says Alphonsine.
Every delay, every obstacle fuels the outbreak
In this already difficult context, the COVID-19 pandemic has created extra barriers to vaccinating children against measles.
“Implementing preventive measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 is vital to protect communities and health workers, especially in a country like DRC where the health system is very limited,” says Lampaert.
“Unfortunately, these measures are having an impact on the overall measles response, including transporting vaccines, assembling dedicated teams and launching vaccination campaigns.”
As we adapt our approach to the coronavirus pandemic and support the response to it, it is important to remember that a one-track focus on COVID-19 will sow the seeds of other major health crises.
These obstacles are affecting the efforts to bring the measles epidemic under control, says Lampaert.
“Every delay and every obstacle increases the risk of the epidemic continuing to spread, killing more children,” Lampaert says.
“The same happened during the West African Ebola outbreak, when measles vaccination activities were disrupted, leading to a resurgence of the disease.”
In addition to vaccinating children against measles and supporting patient care, MSF staff are screening for malnutrition as part of our emergency response in Boso Manzi health zone. © Caroline Thirion/MSF
COVID-19 will sow the seeds of other health crises
Today, with all eyes focused on the threat of COVID-19, MSF teams are continuing to respond to other health emergencies such as measles, in DRC and beyond.
“As we adapt our approach to the coronavirus pandemic and support the response to it, it is important to remember that a one-track focus on COVID-19 will sow the seeds of other major health crises,” says Lampaert.
“Reducing vaccinations, nutrition support or malaria prevention in the face of a public health crisis will lead to other crises, making the situation even worse. Neglecting the other health issues would make us complicit in many more future deaths.”
Central African Republic
After many years of violence and insecurity, the Central African Republic is in a state of chronic health emergency.
Many of the country’s five million inhabitants – more than 700,000 of them internally displaced due to insecurity – don’t have access to healthcare, and many children have not been vaccinated.
In these conditions, a preventable but highly contagious disease like measles can spread fast.
The logistical challenges and costs of setting up a large-scale vaccination campaign in such remote, isolated parts of the country are enormous. Many of these areas can only be reached by plane.
MSF medical doctor Amira Jaouadi cares for a young patient in the measles ward of Bossangoa Hospital. Bossangoa was at the epicentre of the measles outbreak when this photo was taken on 20 March. © James Oatway/MSF
In January 2020, the Ministry of Health declared a nationwide measles epidemic.
In support of the health authorities, MSF has launched a massive vaccination campaign to vaccinate more than 340,000 children for measles in seven health zones across the country.
Insecurity and tricky logistics make for challenging vaccination campaigns
“The logistical challenges and costs of setting up a large-scale vaccination campaign in such remote, isolated parts of the country are enormous,” says Ester Gutierrez, MSF’s head of mission in CAR.
“Many of these areas can only be reached by plane. Our mobile teams often spend several days in the field, in order to reach the most far-flung villages.”
“Insecurity is another issue,” Gutierrez continues. “In the area between Bria and Ouadda in the centre of the country, for instance, clashes prevented us from carrying out our planned medical and vaccination activities.”
Keeping vaccines cold in areas without reliable electricity is also a huge challenge.
Zacharie “Papa Zac” Musangu is an MSF veteran. He is currently supporting the measles intervention in the CAR health district of Baboua-Aba by managing the cold chain, an essential component of a vaccination campaign. © James Oatway/MSF
Zacharie Musangu (pictured) is an MSF veteran who first started working with us in his native DRC in 2004.
At our temporary base in the small town of Baboua, close to the border with Cameroon, the logistics expert gets up every morning at 3 am to prepare vaccines for the eight mobile teams that take them by car or motorbike to remote villages in the district.
“The most important part is to maintain the same temperature when vaccines are taken from the freezers at our base – what we call the active cold chain – to the passive cold chain in cooler boxes that our mobile teams are taking to the vaccination sites,” says Zacharie.
“It’s a very delicate procedure.”
Replacing traditional medicines
Parallel to the vaccination campaign, MSF teams also treat children already sick with measles.
Since the beginning of 2020, more than 6,200 suspected cases of measles have been notified and treated by MSF in Ouham region and Nangha Boguila and Bossangoa health districts in the north of the country.
Yvonne Zongagofo has brought her stepson Maxime (pictured) to a health post that MSF supports in the village of Benzambe, several hours drive from the town of Bossangoa.
A nurse checks the temperature and condition of Maxime, who is being treated for measles with complications at the MSF-supported medical centre in Benzembe village. © James Oatway/MSF
Maxime has been sick for three days. He has a fever and doesn’t want to eat.
“I have insisted with my family to take Maxime to the health post – I knew it was measles,” Yvonne says.
“We haven’t had anybody get sick from this disease for years but I recognised the symptoms because I remember the last epidemic, when I was a child.”
Unlike for the new coronavirus, we’ve had a vaccine for measles for decades and we need to make sure that as many children as possible have access to it.
“Back then, traditional medicine was the only remedy, and there were no NGOs, doctors or hospitals in this region,” Yvonne continues.
“Nowadays the situation has improved slightly, we have a bit more access to healthcare, but it’s not enough. Children are still dying in my community.”
An infant is vaccinated against measles in the village of Ndongue. © James Oatway/MSF
After a consultation at the health post, Maxime is taken to the MSF-supported hospital in Bossangoa, where a special measles ward has been set up.
“Children should not have to die of a preventable disease like measles,” says Adelaide Ouabo, MSF medical coordinator.
“Unlike for the new coronavirus, we’ve had a vaccine for measles for decades and we need to make sure that as many children as possible have access to it.”
As concerns about the spread of COVID-19 grow in Chad, parts of the country remain gripped by a two-year measles epidemic that shows no signs of slowing down, putting the country at risk of a twin crisis.
Officially declared in May 2018, 118 out of 126 health districts in Chad have now been affected by measles, with southern provinces near the border with CAR facing a rapid increase in cases.
Twenty-eight health districts are in a declared measles epidemic and during the first three months of 2020, the Ministry of Public Health reported 7,412 suspected cases.
MSF measles vaccination in the village of Samingualé. From 3 February to 12 April, MSF carried out a vaccination campaign in the Kyabé region, southern Chad. Located more than 700km from the capital, this rural region has been affected by recurrent epidemics of measles for more than two years, like many other zones in Chad and the Central African Republic. © Félix Guillou/MSF
Going to the heart of the epidemic
In February, an MSF emergency response team travelled to one of the worst affected areas, Beboto, after the Ministry of Public Health alerted MSF that measles cases in the district had doubled in a matter of weeks.
MSF nurse supervisor Ngueremi Yary Roger says that upon arrival, the team found that some families had lost three or four children to the disease.
Patients were either staying home or using traditional medicines instead of trying to access local health facilities.
To encourage people to seek treatment, our team in Beboto worked closely with community leaders to raise awareness about measles prevention and how suspected measles patients could access free healthcare in MSF-supported facilities.
Despite the fact that COVID-19 is the emergency situation attracting the full attention of the country and donors, the response to the measles epidemic remains our main priority.
We donated medical kits, measles vaccines and water and sanitation supplies to the health district to enable case management by local teams under the supervision of Beboto health district authorities.
In February, an MSF team vaccinated 25,177 children aged between six months and nine years against measles in Beboto district. They also screened and treated thousands of children for malnutrition. © Julia Sohn/MSF
From the beginning of February to mid-April, we also carried out a vaccination campaign in the Kyabé region of southern Chad, targeting children between six months and five years old.
Because of the many cases of malaria and malnutrition, MSF provided general paediatric care and treated the children with measles in addition to vaccination activities.
COVID-19 fears threaten to overshadow other health needs
Since the first COVID-19 case in Chad was confirmed on 19 March, the majority of humanitarian organisations and donors have shifted their attention towards COVID-19 prevention activities.
A measles vaccination campaign by the Ministry of Public Health and supported by UNICEF and GAVI is planned for this year, but fears of a large COVID-19 outbreak may threaten that.
“Despite the fact that COVID-19 is the emergency situation attracting the full attention of the country and donors, the response to the measles epidemic remains our main priority,” says MSF Head of Mission Seidina Ousseini. “We must focus and push for a mass vaccination campaign.
Mothers and their children wait to receive the measles vaccine in the village of Samingualé. © Félix Guillou/MSF
“Chad has been facing an economic crisis since 2015 and the government simply does not have the capacity or funds to respond to COVID-19 and measles at the same time.
“It is important to remember that while donor funding continues to be diverted towards COVID-19 activities, we must continue to do what we can to help fight measles and ensure other health services aren’t neglected to avoid a catastrophic situation where all these issues merge into one even bigger problem.”